# 3.5: Internal Temperature Sensor Calibration

When it comes to temperature measurement, the documented factory calibration of STM32F030 family members does not provide enough information to make a valid estimation. The datasheet tells us that the value stored is the raw data of ADC conversion of the temperature sensor reading at 3.3V (±10mV) and 30℃ (±5℃). There is only one point calibration documented and its reference temperature is known with a precision of ±5℃. That’s not enough to calculate temperature but it shows that the sensor was tested in production.

Notice that the calibration value name is TS_CAL1, some other STM32 chipset families do have a second temperature factory calibration point TS_CAL2. Also some don’t have any factory calibration stored at all. So you have to refer to the datasheet that matches the chip you are targeting when you port your code to a new chipset. The sensor linearity with temperature is at worst ±2℃. So I am curious to see how it performs over a range of temperature.

If you are so lucky that you have picked a STM32F030 chip that has the typical average slope of 4.3 mV/℃ and was calibrated in factory at exactly 3.3V and 30℃, then you could use the following formula to calculate the temperature.

T = 30 + (TS_CAL1 * 3.3 – TS_RAW * VDDA) / 4095 / 0.0043

with

VDDA = 3.3 * VREFINT_CAL / V_RAW

that gives

T = 30 + 3.3 * (TS_CAL1 – TS_RAW * V_CAL / V_RAW) / 4095 / 0.0043

If I express the average slope in raw ADC units per ℃ instead of mV/℃

5.336 = 4095 * 0.0043 / 3.3

the final formula is

T = 30 + (TS_CAL1 – TS_RAW * V_CAL / V_RAW) * 1000 / 5336

which matches the sample code for temperature computation given in the reference manual (RM0360 A.7.16).

``````/* Temperature sensor calibration value address */
#define VDD_CALIB ((uint32_t) (3300))
#define VDD_APPLI ((uint32_t) (3000))
#define AVG_SLOPE ((uint32_t) (5336)) /* AVG_SLOPE in ADC conversion step
(@3.3V)/°C multiplied by 1000 for
precision on the division */
int32_t temperature; /* will contain the temperature in degrees Celsius */
- ((uint32_t) ADC1->DR * VDD_APPLI / VDD_CALIB)) * 1000;
temperature = (temperature / AVG_SLOPE) + 30;
``````

VDDA = 3.3 * 1526 / 1538 = 3.274V

t = 30 + (1721 – 1718 * 1526 / 1538) * 1000 / 5336 = 33.07℃

I confirm the voltage with a voltmeter (measured 3.282V versus 3.274V computed). The computed internal temperature value is roughly 5℃ higher than the room temperature.

## Undocumented calibration data

For the STM32F030Fx, the 5KB space before the RAM contains the System Memory (3KB) and the option bytes.

System Memory 0x1FFFEC00 3KB
Option Bytes 0x1FFFF800 2KB
RAM Memory 0x20000000 4KB

The calibration data are saved in the last 96 bytes of the System Memory, starting at address 0x1FFFF7A0. So it’s simple to dump the content of that zone and compare the values for multiple chips.

``````\$ stm32flash -r - -S 0x1FFFF7a0:96 COM3 2>/dev/null | hexdump -C
00000000  ff ff ff ff 31 00 10 00  ff ff ff ff 1c 00 3a 00  |....1.........:.|
00000010  12 57 34 41 38 32 30 20  b9 06 f6 05 f0 ff ff ff  |.W4A820 ........|
00000020  ff ff 11 05 ff ff ff ff  fc ff ff ff 10 00 ff ff  |................|
00000030  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  |................|
00000040  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  f3 ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  |................|
00000050  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  68 97 52 ad 3b c4 3f c0  |........h.R.;.?.|
00000060
``````
Location Content Size F030 F0x1/2/8
0x1FFFF7AC Unique ID 12
0x1FFFF7B8 TS_CAL1 2
0x1FFFF7BA VREFINT_CAL 2
0x1FFFF7C2 TS_CAL2 2
0x1FFFF7CC Flash size (KB) 2

This is the same layout as the one documented in RM0091 Reference Manual STM32F0x1/STM32F0x2/STM32F0x8 which includes the following sample code for temperature computation.

``````/* Temperature sensor calibration value address */
#define VDD_CALIB ((uint16_t) (330))
#define VDD_APPLI ((uint16_t) (300))
int32_t temperature; /* will contain the temperature in degrees Celsius */
temperature = ((int32_t) ADC1->DR * VDD_APPLI / VDD_CALIB)
temperature *= (int32_t)(110 - 30);
temperature += 30;
``````

Factoring in the actual measured voltage, this gives

T = 30 + (TS_CAL1 – TS_RAW * V_CAL / V_RAW) * 80 / (TS_CAL1 – TS_CAL2)

``````TSCAL2_SLOPE = (1721 - 1297) / 80 = 5.3 ADC step/℃
= 3.3 * 5.3 / 4095 = 4.271 mV/℃
``````

t = 30 + (1721 – 1718 * 1526 / 1538) * 80 / (1721 – 1297) = 33.09℃

Which is only 0.02℃ higher than the previous result based on the more generic formula. Because the temperature measured is close to the calibration temperature, the correction is negligible. For this particular chip, to see a difference of 0.1℃ between the value computed by the two formulas, you need a delta of 15℃ from the calibration temperature.

## Tuning

The factory calibration temperature is defined as 30℃ (±5℃). I can store a reference temperature value in the first User Data Option Byte. This way I don’t need to modify the code for each chip.

I update the application to use TS_CAL2 based temperature calculation and access the tuned reference temperature from the option bytes.

``````/* adcmain.c -- ADC reading of reference voltage and temperature sensor */

#include <stdio.h>
#include "system.h"

#define RAW

#define TS_CAL2 ((const short *) 0x1FFFF7C2)
#define USER0   ((const unsigned char *) 0x1FFFF804)

int main( void) {
unsigned last = 0 ;
short calV, calC ;

/* Initialize ADC and fetch calibration values */
#ifdef RAW
printf( "%u, %u\n", calV, calC) ;

int baseC = 300 ;
# ifdef USER0
if( 0xFF == (USER0[ 0] ^ USER0[ 1]))
baseC = USER0[ 0] * 10 ;
# endif
#endif

for( ;;)
if( uptime == last)
yield() ;
else {
short Vsample, Csample ;

last = uptime ;
#ifdef RAW
printf( "%i, %i, %i, %i, ", calV, Vsample, calC, Csample) ;
Csample = baseC + (calC - (int) Csample * calV / Vsample)
# ifdef TS_CAL2
* 800 / (calC - *TS_CAL2) ;
# else
* 10000 / 5336 ;
# endif
Vsample = 330 * calV / Vsample ;
#else
#endif
printf( "%i.%i, %i.%i\n", Vsample / 100, Vsample % 100,
Csample / 10, Csample % 10) ;
}
}
``````

## Checkpoint

I have added an appendix to track the factory written content.

Next I will cover the toolchain update that I made while working on the temperature sensors.